For the Buns • 1 cup whole milk (236ml) • ⅓ cup water (78ml) • 2 ¼ teaspoons active dry yeast (7g) • ⅓ cup granulated sugar • 5 Tbsp unsalted butter melted (70g) • 1 large egg + 1 large egg yolk room temperature preferred • 2 teaspoons table salt • ¼ tsp nutmeg optional • 4-5 cups all-purpose or bread flour plus additional as needed (500-625g, + additional as needed)

For the Filling • 4 Tablespoons unsalted butter very soft (56g) • ½ cup light or dark brown sugar firmly packed (100g) • 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon • ⅛ teaspoon allspice optional but recommended • ⅛ teaspoon ground nutmeg optional but recommended • ⅛ teaspoon table salt • 2 ½ cups chopped peeled/cored apple (280g)

For the Caramel Glaze • ¾ cups dark brown sugar  firmly packed (150g) • ½ cup unsalted butter cut into  8 pieces (113g) • ⅓ cup whole milk (78ml) • ¼ teaspoon salt • ½ cup powdered sugar (63g) • ½ teaspoon vanilla extract

Combine milk and water in a heatproof container and heat until 110-120F (43-49C). Pour into a large mixing bowl, sprinkle yeast overtop and add a pinch of your granulated sugar.

Stir and allow to sit for 5-10 minutes, until the yeast has formed a foamy cap. 

Add granulated sugar, butter, egg, egg yolk, salt, nutmeg (if using) and approximately half of the flour and stir until well-combined.

While stirring, gradually add additional flour until the dough clings to itself and pulls from the sides of the bowl. Stir until dough is still a bit tacky to the touch but not too sticky. 

Lightly dust a clean surface with flour and knead the dough for 5-10 minutes or until smooth and elastic (add more flour as needed). 

Place dough in a large, lightly oiled bowl and turn to coat the surface with a thin layer of oil. Cover tightly and place in a warm place to rise until doubled in size ( 1-2 hours). 

Prepare your filling... Combine brown sugar, cinnamon, allspice, nutmeg, and salt in a medium-sized bowl and whisk together until well-combined.

Peel, core, and chop apples (smaller pieces are easier to roll into the cinnamon buns).

 Once dough has risen, gently deflate and transfer to a clean, lightly floured surface. Use a rolling pin to roll into a 10×20” (25-50cm) rectangle.

Use a knife to evenly spread butter over the surface of the dough, leaving about ½” (1.25cm) of the perimeter untouched.

Toss apples and brown sugar mixture together until apples are coated then immediately evenly sprinkle over the butter.

Starting with one of the longer edges, firmly roll dough into a log, pinching the end together to make a seam.

Lightly butter a 13×9” (33x23cm) baking dish and set aside.

Use a sharp knife to immediately cut the dough into 12 even pieces and place cut-side down in prepared baking dish.

Cover rolls with a towel and place in a warm spot to rise until puffed and increased in size at least 50%, about 25-40 minutes. Meanwhile, preheat oven to 350F (175C).

Uncover risen rolls and transfer to the center rack of preheated oven. Bake 25-30 minutes until rolls are cooked through.

Once rolls have finished baking, prepare caramel glaze.

Combine brown sugar, butter, milk, and salt in a saucepan over medium heat. Cook until butter is melted and sugar dissolves. Boil for 5 mins, stirring frequently.

Remove from heat and add powdered sugar and vanilla extract. Whisk until smooth.

Immediately drizzle or spread glaze over cinnamon buns (even if they are still warm). Allow glaze to set before serving.